Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals. Har-Anand Publications. Although Afghanistan was considered an integral part of India in antiquity, and was often called "Little India" even in medieval times, politically it had not been a part of India after the downfall of the Kushan empire, followed by the defeat of the Hindu Shahis by Mahmud Ghazni.
The historical region extended, along the north, from the Amu Darya Oxus River westward to the Caspian Sea and, along the south, from the fringes of the central Iranian deserts eastward to the mountains of central Afghanistan. Memoirs of Babur. Packard Humanities Institute.
Travels in Asia and Africa, — reprint, illustrated ed. Sir H. London: Packard Humanities Institute. Abdul Hai Habibi. Schetter; Reinhard Schlagintweit Afghanistan -a country without a state? The earliest mention of the name 'Afghan' Abgan is to be found in a Sasanid inscription from the third century AD, and it appears in India in the form of 'Avagana' December 15, Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. University of London. Hund: The Forgotten City of Gandhara , p.
Holt, Ann K. Lambton, Bernard Lewis , eds.
Jaypala of Waihind saw danger in the consolidation of the kingdom of Ghazna and decided to destroy it. He therefore invaded Ghazna, but was defeated Rashid, Ahmed. Introduction, page 9. Infobase Publishing. London: Elibron. Edward Granville Browne. United States: The World Factbook. Andy Blunden. The New American Cyclopaedia, Vol. George Robert , — Markus Wiener Publishers. Al-Ahram Democracy.
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The Brunei Times. The Nation. Michael; Norchi, Charles H. Retrieved 7 January Michael; Norchi, Charles. The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, — University of California Press. The Afghans are among the latest victims of genocide by a superpower. Large numbers of Afghans were killed to suppress resistance to the army of the Soviet Union, which wished to vindicate its client regime and realize its goal in Afghanistan.
According to widely reported accounts, substantial programmes of depopulation have been conducted in these Afghan provinces: Ghazni, Nagarhar, Lagham, Qandahar, Zabul, Badakhshan, Lowgar, Paktia, Paktika and Kunar There is considerable evidence that genocide has been committed against the Afghan people by the combined forces of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and the Soviet Union.
European Journal of Population. The Widening Circle of Genocide.
Young Photographer At Paghman Gardens
Transaction Publishers. During the intervening fourteen years of Communist rule, an estimated 1. These were not battle casualties or the unavoidable civilian victims of warfare. Soviet and local Communist forces seldom attacked the scattered guerilla bands of the Afghan Resistance except, in a few strategic locales like the Panjsher valley. Instead they deliberately targeted the civilian population, primarily in the rural areas. University of Washington Press. Fair Winds. A final weapon of terror the Soviets used against the mujahideen was the abduction of Afghan women.
Soldiers flying in helicopters would scan for women working in the fields in the absence of their men, land, and take the women captive. Russian soldiers in the city of Kabul would also steal young women. The object was rape, although sometimes the women were killed, as well. The women who returned home were often considered dishonored for life. Hassan While military operations in the country were going on, women were abducted.
While flying in the country in search of mujahideen, helicopters would land in fields where women were spotted. While Afghan women do mainly domestic chores, they also work in fields assisting their husbands or performing tasks by themselves. The women were now exposed to the Russians, who kidnapped them with helicopters. By November a number of such incidents had taken place in various parts of the country, including Laghman and Kama.
In the city of Kabul, too, the Russians kidnapped women, taking them away in tanks and other vehicles, especially after dark. Such incidents happened mainly in the areas of Darul Aman and Khair Khana, near the Soviet garrisons. At times such acts were committed even during the day. KhAD agents also did the same. Small groups of them would pick up young women in the streets, apparently to question them but in reality to satisfy their lust: in the name of security, they had the power to commit excesses.
Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration.
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Afgantsy: The Russians in Afghanistan Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 January His commitment to jihad — to an Islamic revolution transcending national boundaries, was such that he dreamed one day the "green Islamic flag" would flutter not just over Pakistan and Afghanistan, but also over territories represented by the former Soviet Union Central Asian republics. After the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, as the director-general of the Pakistan's intelligence organisation, Inter-Services Intelligence ISI directorate, an impatient Gul and West wanted to establish a government of the so-called Mujahideen on Afghan soil in order to recognise it.
He then ordered an assault using mujahideen leaders on Jalalabad, the first major urban centre across the Khyber Pass from Pakistan, with the aim capturing it and declaring it as the seat of the new administration. Palgrave, New York. Human Rights Watch. Washington D. Afghanistan Justice Project.
- Afghanistan | History, Map, Flag, Capital, Population, & Languages | moatigucopast.ga.
- The Politics of Making (Critiques: Critical Studies in Architectural Humanities).
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- History of Afghanistan.
George Washington University. Webster University Press. Physicians for Human Rights. CNN News. Archived from the original on 8 October Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 18, Retrieved October 12, February Retrieved December 27, Archived from the original on 11 December The Telegraph. National Geographic Society. History Commons. Daily Times.
Taliban fighters double as reporters to wage Afghan digital war | The Star Online
Piotr Balcerowicz. Petersburg Times. Penguin Press HC.
EU media. New York Times. Retrieved 28 February Retrieved September 21, Retrieved November 14, Retrieved 2 January Equally large percentages endorse the US military presence in Afghanistan.
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